Our approach at The Key Clinic is strictly evidence-based, as we are only interested in cutting edge game-changing therapies. Some of the many research studies into the Neurodevelopmental, Biomedical and Auditory work we do is listed below.

Treatment Research
Therapy Research



Key Neurodevelopmental Therapy Research

2014 Berg A, Fitzgerald S, Neuro-Physiological Training for Children with Motor Difficulties – Peer-reviewed Article published in Fysioterapeuten.

Research investigating the impact of a neurodevelopmental exercise programme on learning.

2011 Sally Goddard Blythe, Neuro-Motor Maturity as an Indicator of Developmental readiness for Education, 2011 Sally Goddard Blythe.

P121-135, Movement, Vision. Hearing - the basis of learning (Ruch, Wzrok, Sluch - Podstawa Uczenia Sie).

2006 Hunter Pauline MA, University of Middlesex

Measuring the effectiveness of a neurodevelopmental exercise programme, designed to be used with children, with special needs

2005 Goddard Blythe SA

Releasing educational potential through movement. Child care in Practice, Volume 11/4:415-432
Research into the relationship between abnormal reflexes and reading problems.

2000 Lancet, McPhillips, Hepper and Mulhern*

A double-blind controlled study examining the effects of replicating primary reflex movements on specific reading difficulties in children. This study showed that as neurodevelopmental delay was reduced, so reading and writing ability and speeds improved. This improvement did not occur nearly as well in the two control groups who either did random exercises or no exercises at all.

2005 Dr. Julie-Anne Jordan Black, The effects of the Primary Movement programme on the academic performance of children attending ordinary primary school.

Hyland and Goddard Blythe researched the reliability of a screening questionnaire to identify children who might have a degree of underlying NDD (neurodevelopmental delay). Screening for neurological Dysfunction in the Specific Learning Difficulty child. (10/98). It was found that the screening questionnaire can successfully predict the probability of neurodevelopmental delay (NDD) with 98% accuracy.

2005 Dr. Julie-Anne Jordan Black, The effects of the Primary Movement programme on the academic performance of children attending ordinary primary school.

This study followed 683 children over a 2 year period who had carried out a reflex integration programme and compared them to those who had not. The results showed that a retained ATNR reflex was significantly linked to poorer performance in Reading, Spelling and Maths. Moreover, the programme successfully inhibited the reflex, leading to very significant gains in Reading and Maths in particular.

2004 Taylor, Houghton and Chapman; University of Western Australia. Primitive reflexes and ADD: developmental origins of classroom dysfunction. International Journal of Special Education.

This study showed a clear link between retained primitive reflexes and ADD diagnosis.

2004 North Eastern Library Board

This study of 672 children showed a clear link between neurodevelopmental immaturity (retained reflexes) and educational underperformance.

2003 Preedy P, O'Donovon C, Scott J, Wolinski R. 55 Preedy, P, O’Donovon, C, Scott, J and Wolinski, R (2000) Exercises for learning. A Beacon Project between Knowle CE Primary School and Kingsley Preparatory School, Department for Education, UK


2003 Jändling M*. The use of the INPP movement programme at a German primary school. Paper presented at the 15th European conference of Neuro-Developmental Delay. Kiel-Oslo-Kiel. March 2003

A follow-up study of a group of children, two years after they had completed the INPP Developmental Exercise Programme demonstrated that the children had maintained the gains they had made two years earlier.

2003 Kesper G

This paper studies the effects of persisting infantile reflexes on motor behaviour and central processing.

2002 Bertram S

A report prepared for the Birmingham Core Skills Partnership studying learning enhancement through reflex inhibition.

2001 Pettman H

This study demonstrated the effects of developmental exercise movements on children with persistent primitive reflexes and reading difficulties using a controlled trial.

2001 Bein-Wierzbinski, W. Persistent primitive reflexes in elementary school children. Effect on oculo-motor and visual perception. Paper presented at The 13th European Conference of Neuro-Developmental Delay in Children with Specific Learning Difficulties. Chester. UK.

This study of 52 elementary children in Germany showed that as the primitive reflexes were inhibited by the movement programme, so ocular-motor skills and reading ability improved. This built on the findings of a previous study which showed that a reflex programme often reduces significantly the need for vision therapy and often results in there being no need for any further eye exercises. (Hooper 1995).

2001 Blythe, Goddard. Proceedings of 5th International British Dyslexia Conference, University of York, April 2001

This paper studied 54 independently diagnosed Dyslexic children. It found that all of them had retained primitive reflexes and, as a result, all had poor ocular-motor, cerebellar and visual perceptual functioning. This demonstrates the critical role which retained reflexes can play in the symptoms and diagnosis of Dyslexia and the hypothesis that these reflexes may be a causal factor

1997 University of Indianapolis* O’Dell and Cooke. Stopping Hyperactivity – A New Solution (Avery Pubs, NY).

O’Dell and Cook, who had founded the Bender Institute in Indianapolis, found that Miriam Bender’s exercises to inhibit the Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex were of value in overcoming hyperactivity.

1994 Wilkinson, G.J. The relationship of primitive postural reflexes to learning difficulties and underachievement. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne School of Education, Newcastle, England.

At the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Wilkinson, found a link between abnormal primitive re"exes and learning disability. She also was able to detect underachievement from the re"ex pro!le. Detailed analysis of her results suggested that a retained Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex was a central factor. There also seemed to be a relationship between a retained Moro Reflex and specific problems with mathematical skills.

1989 Faulkner P (Bucks School)*

This study found that children with reading difficulties who were given regular reading help, 5 days a week over 3 months improved their reading scores by 5 months of age. However, those simply given INPP movements to do 4 days a week over 3 months, without any reading practice, improved their reading age by 9 months of age. 

1971 University of Kansas

Rider (OT) assessed the prevalence of abnormal reflex responses by comparing normal second grade children to a group of learning disabled children. Children with normal reflexes scored consistently higher on achievement tests than those with abnormal reflexes.

1970 University of Kansas

Gustafsson, an occupational therapist, carried out a study in which she compared the reflex levels of two groups of children: one group had been identified as having neurological impairment, the other group had no known neurological impairment. Reflex testing revealed a profile of abnormal reflexes in all of the group with neurological impairment. Eight out of the “normal” group, which comprised 19 children, also had some reflex abnormalities. Of these eight, it was subsequently found that one had behavior problems and the remainder had either reading or writing problems.

Biomedical Treatment Research

Biochemical Individuality

Biochemical Individuality and Nutrition

 Research Paper

Biochemical Imbalances in Mental Health Populations

PowerPoint Presentation

The Effectiveness of Targeted Nutrient Therapy in Treatment of Mental Illness: A Pilot Study

 Scientific Journal

Elevated Blood Copper/Zinc Ratios in Assaultive Young Males

 Scientific Journal

Micronutrient Therapy for Violent and Aggressive Male Youth: An Open-Label Trial

 Scientific Journal

Reduced Violent Behavior Following Biochemical Therapy

Scientific Journal

A Proposal for the Prevention of School Shootings

Research Paper

Advanced Nutrient Therapies for Mental Disorders

PowerPoint Presentation

Biochemical and Nutritional Interventions for ADHD and Behavioral Disorders

PowerPoint Presentation

Biochemical Individuality
Pyrrole Disorder

Discerning the Mauve Factor, Part 1  

Scientific Journal

Discerning the Mauve Factor, Part 2

Scientific Journal


Elevated Serum Copper Levels in Women with a History of Postpartum Depression  

Scientific Journal

Journal of Trace Elements

Scientific Journal

BUNU Conference Trinity College - Dublin, Ireland

PowerPoint Presentation


Disordered Metals in Autism 

Scientific Journal

Pratico Walsh Abstract

Scientific Journal

An Epigenetic Model of Autism and A Warning Regarding Risperdal 

PowerPoint Presentation

Oxidative Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders Case Western Reserve University 

PowerPoint Presentation

Exploring the Mysteries of Autism

PowerPoint Presentation

Bipolar Disorder

A Neuroscience Theory of Bipolar Disorder

American Psychiatric Association 2018 Annual Meeting Poster Session

Advanced Nutrient Therapies for Bipolar Disorder

PowerPoint Presentation


Epigenetics 101


Methylation, Epigenetics and Mental Health

PowerPoint Presentation


The Walsh Theory of Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia and Fatty Acids

Scientific Journal

BUNU Conference Trinity College - Dublin, Ireland

PowerPoint Presentation

Gut/Brain Axis Research

Studies which show the effects of gluten and dairy on Behaviour: 

The Autism Research Foundation published the results of a recent questionnaire asking 25,000 parents of children with Autism, which interventions they found most helpful. 65% said taking gluten and dairy out of the diet.

Neuroactive Peptides From Common Foods Contribute to Psychiatric Disorders

PowerPoint Presentation

Intestinal Digestive Resistance Of Immunodominant Gliadin Peptides

Scientific Journal

Truncated Beta-Amyloid Peptide Channels Provide An Alternative Mechanism For Alzheimer's Disease And Down Syndrome.

Scientific Journal

A peptide found in schizophrenia and autism causes behavioral changes in rats

Scientific Journal

Urinary Peptide Levels In Women With Eating Disorders. A Pilot Study. 

Scientific Journal

A naturally occurring opioid peptide from cow's milk, beta-casomorphine-7, is a direct histamine releaser in man.

Scientific Journal

A Peptide Found In Schizophrenia And Autism Causes Behavioral Changes In Rats.


Beyond The Gut: The Relationship Between Gluten, Psychosis, And Schizophrenia


Dietary influences on behavioural problems in children.


Microbiota Transfer Therapy alters gut ecosystem and improves gastrointestinal and autism symptoms: an open-label study.

Scientific Journal

Key Auditory Therapy Research


Results of almost forty independent studies show that a course of Auditory Therapy is likely to improve comprehension, ability to speed read, auditory processing speeds, face recognition and memory for images, words and numbers. It’s also been shown to reduce hypersensitivity to sounds and help regulate other areas of hyper- or hypo- sensitivity, as well as hyperactivity, anxiety levels, shyness. A clear link has also been shown between children who underperform in class and those who have ‘distortions’ in how they hear.


Impact of Auditory Integrative training on transforming growth factor -B1 and its effect on behavioural and social emotions in children with autism.

2015: Judith Paton, San Mateo, California USA.

Auditory processing Disorder and AIT Before and after results: A clinical Retroactive Study.

2015: Sezer Borazanci, MA; Kartatepe Mah; Omur Sokak, Istanbul, Turkey.

supports speed reading training programme.

AIT and Attention disorders and behaviour disorders - a pilot study.

2014: Berard Auditory Integration Training: Behavior Changes Related to Sensory Modulation.

Research on changes in behaviors and sensory modulation after Berard AIT, published in peer-reviewed journal, Autism Insights.
By Sally S. Brockett, Nancy K. Lawton-Shirley and Judith Giencke Kimball, North Haven, CT, USA.

2014: The Effects of Auditory Integration Training (AIT) on Mismatch Negativity in Children with Autism

by E. M. Sokhadze, S. M. Edelson, L. L. Sears, M. F. Casanova, A. Tasman and S. Brockett, North Haven, CT, USA.

2013: Auditory Integration Therapy in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Published in Autism Insights. By Laila Y. Al-Ayadhi, AIT Practitioner, Riyadh and Abdul Majeed Al-Drees, and Ahmed M. Al-Arfaj, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of auditory integration training (AIT) in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).


Method: Seventy two (72) subjects with ASD aged up to 17 years old (70 male and 2 females) were recruited for the study. All subjects were screened by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (DSM-IV), and assessed by CARS (Childhood Autism Rating Scale). Pre-intervention scores and post-intervention (3 and 6 months) scores were calculated for each child using CARS, Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). Auditory integration training was performed over 2 week, 30 minutes, twice a day.


Results: All subjects demonstrated improvement 3 and 6 months following the AIT. ASD subject showed 22% and 26% percentage improvement in SRS scoring 3 and 6 months respectively following the AIT intervention. Those changes were attributed to statistically significant changes in social awareness, social cognition, and social communication. Similar results were achieved with the ATEC checklist: ASD subject showed 19.5% and 22.5% improvement 3 and 6 months following the AIT intervention, respectively. Those changes are due to statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvement in speech, communication and sociability only.


Conclusions: The results of this study support the therapeutic effects of auditory integration training on social awareness, social cognition, and social communication, as well as speech and communication.

2013: Berard AIT Supports Memory Training Program

by Selvi Borazanci Persson PH.D, Göksu Mah. 106 Sokak No: 30, Kumluca/ ANTALYA, Turkey.

2008: Superior Discrimination of Speech Pitch and Its Relationship to Verbal Ability in Autism Spectrum Disorders

By Heaton P, Hudry K, Ludlow A, Hill E., USA

1993-2004: Stephen M. Edelson, Ph.D. and Bernard Rimland, Ph.D.

The Efficacy of Auditory Integration Training: Summaries and Critiques of 28 Reports

2003: Trainor, L.J., Shahin, A., & Roberts, L.E.

Effects of Musical Training on the Auditory Cortex in Children

2003: Hayes, A, Warrier, C, Nicol, et al Neural Plasticity Following Auditory Training in Children with Learning Problems

2001: Study on the Correlation between Hearing Quality and Learning Ability

By Mrs. Maria Vega, Berard AIT Practitioner, Special Educator and Co-Founder of Vegakids Instituto Desarrollo Infantil, Madrid, Spain. Translated by Victor Estalayo, Berard AIT Instructor/Practitioner

New Clients

Please call us for further information
Reception: 01635 761565

Existing Clients

Access to your private client portal


36 Devonshire Place



Churn Road





Telephone: 01635 761565 


Email :

West Sussex

The WOW Clinic

Westbourne Road
West Sussex
PO10 8UL​


2020 © The Key Clinic